Moreover, how people experience each of the three dimensions stories of empowerment may differ based on diverse understandings of the self and personal the society across cultures.
To better understand whether effects take time to materialize or whether effects that emerge quickly persist one should measure outcomes longitudinally ( McKenzie and Woodruff, 2014 ).
Nonetheless we expect societal empowerment to develop last because societal power is deeply rooted in social systems and values.Culture can rolfing be defined as the dynamic patterns of ideas, practices, institutions, products, and artifacts that are shared stories by certain groups of people.Indeed, previous research reported a link between adhering to patriarchal values and sexual violence against women (e.g., ).Lastly, societal empowerment is not likely to be instigated by any single intervention as it stories is highly related to cultural norms and traditions.It is therefore unlikely that any single intervention will completely alter power and gender relations (e.g., Cheston and Kuhn, 2001 ).While individual differences between people from the same cultural background are omnipresent, people within the same culture tend to hold similar values, beliefs, and practices (e.g., Smith., 2013 ).Even though some sequences may be more probable then other, we stress that womens empowerment can be instigated at any of the three dimensions or at multiple rolfing dimensions simultaneously.The ecological system theory, focusing on the development of children, proposes that individuals directly influence their own experiences and vice versa within specific microsystems (e.g., family, personal school) and between different microsystems (mesosystems). Womens empowerment is seen as a process rather than a fixed manual outcome (e.g., Bandura, 1986 ; dragon Kabeer, 1999 ; Malhotra., 2002 ; ) and described as the dynamic development from being un-empowered to becoming empowered (e.g., Kabeer, 1999 ; Bali Swain and Wallentin, 2009.
Nonetheless, aspire we suggest that tutorial societal empowerment could possibly develop over time, though it may be that this dimension of empowerment can only be observed after years (e.g., the new generation which makes it complex to draw any conclusions about directionality or even causality.Similar conclusions were drawn based on a five-country study in Asia, which indicated that gender norms data strongly influence the extent to which women experience empowerment ( Oppenheim Mason and Smith, 2003 ).Most importantly, we stress that one should clearly specify on which dimension of empowerment an intervention focuses to offer more systematic insights in womens empowerment across studies.The authors suggest that the cooperative business ownership was more successful because it adhered to local cultural norms of social relations by emphasizing the community rather than the individual ( Dutt., 2016 manual ; Kurti., 2016 ).With the risk of oversimplifying this complex matter, we suggest that the review shows first, that access to microfinance services was associated with higher levels of personal empowerment, such as increased personal control beliefs (e.g., Hansen, 2015 ).